Ferdinand de Saussure:The Course in General Linguistic

Why I choose to post about General Linguistics? It simple. Literature is based on linguistics. The Words that we read in novel, poem, the act of actors/actreses in the drama play or movie they all connected with language.

Ferdinand de Saussure is regarded as the father of modern linguistics. Linguistics is a scientific study of language. Saussure’s theory of language and how it should be studied played an important role in the development of structuralism. It is a method in human science and affected the course of literary study. In his theory of language Saussure argued that studying language should be based on synchronic system, which means a system that all elements and rules are, theoretically, available to the user of the language.
Furthermore he distinct langage (language; the universal human phenomenon of language), langue (a language; the particular language system i.e. English), and parole (speech; language in use). Language is made up of words and Saussure analysis of the words results that verbal words has two sides, an acoustic image or sound pattern and a concept. The acoustic image or sound pattern called by him as significant (translated by Harris as signal) and the other (the concepts) is called as signifie or harris called it significance). Lately these terms is known as signifier and signified. The connection between signifier and signified is arbitrary, that is a convention accepted by all users of a given language, not as the result of some existential link between word and thing. read more


Pre critical Response; A Summary

Pre critical Response is an essential in the fullest appreciation of literature. This is not inferior response to literature, nevertheless the response employs primarily the sense and emotions is an indispensable one if pleasure or delight is the aim of art.

Pre-critical response is aiming to drive the critical response from advanced readers.

pre critical response
image via http://gloomwire.com/

Pre critical response is the one taken by a forementioned “common reader”- literate, sensitive, interested in literature but lacking the technical skills of academic criticism. These kind of readers are enjoying the work of art because they are responding to the ingredients of literature. read more

Elements of Novel and Stories

Each of Literary works has element that is the core that makes reader can swim to the richness of the works. Recognizing the elements will help student of literature program to establish the first response to develop further analysis. Here I will give fiction’s elements taken from here:

Plot; the readers will recognize this as they read a story or novel. Even common readers recognize this. A mark that someone is deeply feel the plot is when he or she does not want to get off the book they have been reading. However for students majoring in literature do have to recognize these following plot structures.ExpositionThe introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the storyForeshadowingThe use of hints or clues to suggest what will happen later in the storyInciting ForceThe event or character that triggers the conflict.ConflictThe essence of fiction. It creates plot. The conflicts we encounter can usually be identified as one of four kinds. (Man versus…Man, Nature, Society, or Self)Rising ActionA series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the inciting force and ends with the climax.CrisisThe conflict reaches a turning point. At this point the opposing forces in the story meet and the conflict becomes most intense. The crisis occurs before or at the same time as the climax.ClimaxThe climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the reader. Frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted.Falling ActionThe events after the climax which close the story.Resolution (Denouement)Rounds out and concludes the action.

Almost always round or three-dimensional characters. They have good and bad qualities. Their goals, ambitions and values change. A round character changes as a result of what happens to him or her. A character who changes inside as a result of what happens to him is referred to in literature as a DYNAMIC character. A dynamic character grows or progresses to a higher level of understanding in the course of the story. read more

Kenapa Pencari Cerah Ganti Hosting? Ini alasannya

Salah seorang teman di komunitas blogger menanyakan kenapa saya kembali memindahkan hosting untuk website pencaricerah. Dipostingan kali ini saya ingin menjawab pertanyaan tersebut.

Saya tidak punya kecenderungan untuk gonta-ganti hosting karena resikonya sangat besar. Salah satu resiko yang diambil saat pindah hosting adalah kehilangan pengunjung yang telah didapat. Khususnya jika pengunjung tersebut berasal dari situs pencarian seperti google.

Oleh karena itu pertimbangan mengganti hosting kali ini butuh beberapa waktu bagi saya untuk memutuskannya. Apalagi dengan target untuk mendapatkan penghasilan dari adsense tahun ini. read more